I BARBUDA, Antigua and Barbuda,
państwo w Ameryce Środk.,
w Indiach Zach., na części Wysp Podwietrznych (Małe Antyle) na M. Karaibskim.
Stolica: Saint John's
Powierzchnia: 442 km2
Ludność: 66 tys. mieszk.
(1996); większość stanowią Murzyni
Język urzędowy: angielski
Jednostka monetarna: dolar
Święto narodowe: 1 listopada —
rocznica uzyskania niepodległości (1981)
Podział administracyjny: 6
parafii. Antigua i Barbuda obejmuje 3 wyspy, Antiguę (280,7 km2, ok.
80 tys. mieszk.), Barbudę (160,6 km2, ok. 1,5 tys. mieszk.) i nie
zamieszkaną Redondę (1,5 km2)
pochodzenia wulk., pagórkowata (wys. do 405 m), Barbuda zbud. z wapieni,
nizinna; klimat podrównikowy, w lecie cyklony; wilgotne lasy równikowe; rzeki
nieliczne, okresowe. Antigua i Barbuda obejmuje 3 wyspy: Antiguę (280,7 km2),
Barbudę (160,6 km2) i nie zamieszkaną Redondę (1,5 km 2).
Podstawą gospodarki jest eksport usług; dochód nar. 2570 dol. USA na 1 mieszk.
(1987); turystyka dostarcza bezpośrednio lub pośrednio ok. 52% produktu wewn.
brutto i zapewnia dość wysokie jego tempo wzrostu — 5,6% (1977–87); 1987 Antiguę
i Barbudę odwiedziło 160 tys. turystów; wyspa Antigua jest także odwiedzana
przez uczestników turyst. rejsów morskich. Uprawa gł. trzciny cukrowej i bawełny
oraz batatów, jamu i manioku; rafineria cukru, destylarnia rumu, oczyszczalnia
bawełny; w pobliżu Saint John`s rafineria ropy naft., a także zakłady przemysłu
przetwórczego produkujące przede wszystkim na eksport; wywóz gł. bawełny,
środków transportu, odzieży; import gł. żywności; handel z USA, W. Brytanią,
Trynidadem i Tobago.
konstytucyjna; czł. bryt. Wspólnoty Narodów; konstytucja z 1981; głową państwa
jest monarcha bryt., którego reprezentuje mianowany przez niego gubernator
generalny; gubernator powołuje premiera rządu, a na jego wniosek — pozostałych
członków rządu; władza ustawodawcza należy do 2-izbowego parlamentu o kadencji
5-letniej: Izba Reprezentantów wybierana w wyborach powszechnych, Senat
mianowany przez gubernatora; władzę wykonawczą sprawuje rząd odpowiedzialny
przed Izbą Reprezentantów; wyspa Barbuda ma autonomię w sprawach lokalnych.
islands that form an independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the eastern
Caribbean Sea. They lie at the southern end of the Leeward Islands chain and
have an area of 171 square miles (442 square kilometres). There is one
dependency, the small island of Redonda. The capital is St. John's, on Antigua.
The nation's nearby neighbours include Anguilla to the northwest, St. Kitts and
Nevis to the west, and Montserrat to the southwest. The Atlantic Ocean washes
Antigua's northeastern shore. The population in 1990 was estimated to be
For information about regional aspects of Antigua and Barbuda, see
West Indies: Antigua and Barbuda.
The largest of the islands, Antigua, covers a total area of 108 square
miles (280 square km). It lacks forests, mountains, and rivers and is subject to
droughts. Though mostly low and undulating and underlain by limestone, the
terrain rises westward in volcanic rocks that reach 1,330 feet (405 m) at Boggy
Peak. The intricate coastline has bays and headlands fringed by reefs and
shoals. Anchorages include the deepwater harbour of St. John's and the shallower
harbours of Parham and English. The mean annual temperature of Antigua is
about 81° F (27° C). Temperatures vary little from month to month, and the
annual rainfall averages about 40 inches (1,000 mm), which is relatively sparse
compared with other islands of the Lesser Antilles. Antigua and the
nation's other islands lie in the path of the seasonal hurricanes that occur in
the West Indies.
Barbuda, formerly Dulcina, lies 25 miles (40 km) north of Antigua and
covers 62 square miles (161 square km). It is a coral island, flat and
well-wooded, with highlands rising to 143 feet (44 m) at Lindsay Hill in the
northeast. A game reserve, Barbuda is inhabited by a variety of wildlife,
including duck, guinea fowl, plover, pigeon, wild deer, and wild pig. The only
settlement on Barbuda is Codrington, which is situated on a lagoon on the west
side of the island.
Redonda, an uninhabited rock covering 0.5 square mile (1.3 square km) and rising
sheer to 1,000 feet (305 m), lies 25 miles (40 km) southwest of Antigua
proper. Phosphate deposits are located there.
The vast majority of the population of Antigua and Barbuda is made up of
the descendants of African slaves who were brought there during colonial times
to work on the islands' sugar plantations. Today the people are largely engaged
in tourism and in agricultural pursuits. The main settlements are St. John's on
Antigua and Codrington on Barbuda. The language is English, and the vast
majority of the population are Christians, with the Anglican church being
predominant. The average life expectancy is about 72 years.
Antigua was visited in 1493 by Christopher Columbus, who named it for the Church
of Santa Maria de la Antigua in Seville, Spain. It was colonized by English
settlers in 1632 and remained a British possession although it was raided by the
French in 1666. The early colonizers were also attacked by Carib Indians, who
were once one of the dominant peoples of the West Indies. At first tobacco was
grown, but in the later 17th century sugar was found to be more profitable.
The nearby island of Barbuda was colonized in 1678. The crown granted the island
to the Codrington family in 1685. It was planned as a slave-breeding colony but
never became one; the slaves who were imported came to live self-reliantly in
their own community.
The emancipation in 1834 of slaves, who had been employed on the profitable
sugar estates, gave rise to difficulties in obtaining labour. An earthquake in
1843 and a hurricane in 1847 caused further economic problems. Barbuda reverted
back to the crown in the late 19th century, and its administration came to be so
closely related to that of Antigua that it eventually became a dependency of
The Leeward Islands colony, of which the islands were a part, was defederated in
1956, and in 1958 Antigua joined the West Indies Federation. When the federation
was dissolved in 1962, Antigua persevered with discussions of alternative forms
of federation. Provision was made in the West Indies Act of 1967 for Antigua to
assume a status of association with the United Kingdom on Feb. 27, 1967. As an
associated state, Antigua was fully self-governing in all internal affairs,
while the United Kingdom retained responsibility for external affairs and
By the 1970s Antigua had developed an independence movement, particularly under
its prime minister George Walter, who wanted complete independence for the
islands and opposed the British plan of independence within a federation of
islands. Walter lost the 1976 elections to Vere Bird, who favoured regional
integration. In 1978 Antigua reversed its position and announced it wanted
independence. The autonomy talks were complicated by the fact that Barbuda, long
a dependency of Antigua, felt that it had been economically stifled by the
larger island and wanted to secede. Finally, on Nov. 1, 1981, Antigua and
Barbuda achieved independence, with Vere Bird as the first prime minister. The
state obtained United Nations and Commonwealth membership and joined the
Organization of East Caribbean States. Bird's party won again in 1984 and 1989
by overwhelming margins, giving the prime minister firm control of the islands'
David Lawrence Niddrie
Janet D. Momsen
and Barbuda has experienced a slow but steady growth in its economy since the
late 1970s. The gross national product (GNP) is growing more rapidly than the
population; the GNP per capita is fairly high for a Caribbean nation. Tourism is
the mainstay of the economy, accounting for about 60 percent of the GNP when
related services are taken into account.
From the 1950s agriculture's contribution to the GNP dropped dramatically, until
in the late 1980s it was less than 5 percent. Over the same period the number of
agricultural workers in the nation fell to about 2,100, or about one-fourth the
number formerly employed in agriculture. A severe blow to the agricultural
sector came in 1972 when the sugar industry closed down. Attempts were made in
the early 1980s to replant some of the sugarcane fields and to restore the
refinery, but, because of financial problems, the sugar industry was again
closed in 1985. Sea Island cotton has traditionally been grown, and fruits,
vegetables, and livestock are also raised. The fishing industry has grown in
importance, especially after the government established a corporation for
catching and processing fish, including lobster.
Manufacturing is in the development stage in Antigua and Barbuda. Most of
the nation's industries are involved with the processing of agricultural
products, and the chief items produced include foods, clothing and textiles,
concrete blocks, paints, optical lenses, and wood and paper products. Electronic
components are assembled for export. The country's imports include mineral
fuels, machinery and transport equipment, food and live animals, and chemical
products. Antigua and Barbuda's main trading partners are the United
States, the members of the Caribbean Community and Common Market (Caricom), and
the United Kingdom.
Transportation on the islands is mainly provided by motor vehicles, and almost
50 percent of the roads are paved. The nation's main airfield, which handles
international flights, is V.C. Bird (formerly Coolidge) on Antigua; there
is another, smaller airfield on Barbuda. The main port is St. John's, with its
Government and social conditions
and Barbuda is an independent member of the Commonwealth. The 1981 constitution
provides for a two-house parliamentary type of government. Members of the House
of Representatives are elected every five years, and members of the Senate are
appointed by the governor-general, who represents the British monarch as the
country's head of state. The governor-general is advised in his Senate
selections by the prime minister and the leader of the minority party.
Two welfare plans administered by the government are available to the islanders.
One is a medical plan, which covers most expenses for medical treatment and
hospitalization. The other is a social-security plan, which provides old-age
pensions and a number of other benefits. The groundwater supply is augmented by
distillation of seawater.
Basic education is compulsory, beginning at age 5 and lasting 11 years. The
country also has a teachers' college and a technical and vocational school. The
literacy rate is high and has been estimated at about 90 percent of the total
Radio and television broadcasting is controlled by a government agency. The
country has several newspapers, all under private ownership.
Points of interest to visitors on Antigua include the colourful public
market, the old Court House (1748–50) in which the parliament meets, and St.
John's Cathedral (1847), all in St. John's. The annual Midsummer Carnival,
second only to Trinidad's in size, includes calypso contests, processions, and